In 1626 the French Cardinal
Richelieu sent his envoyé Chevalier Isaac
de Rasilly (1587 - 1635) to occupy the Island
of Mogador. But he found the island not defendable
and not suitable for a base for further Atlantic expeditions.
Following Morocco's alliance with Algeria's
Abd-El-Kader against France, Essaouira was bombarded
occupied by the French Navy under the Prince de Joinville
on August 16, 1844.
In Rue Laalouj (Medina - Kasbah) there is
the building of the ancient French Consulat.
Charles de Foucauld (1858-1916) undertook a risky exploration
of Morocco (1883 -1884) as an adolecent searching for God. As
a priest he returned to Morocco in 1901 and stayed in Sahara,
first in Beni Abbès and later at Tamanrasset
among the Tuaregs of the Hoggar. He had a great respect
for the culture of Morocco and faith of muslims.
from the French protectotrate
30 Mar 1912 - 2 Mar 1956
The French presence
during the protectorate is important . French is the
first foreign language and is widely spoken in the Moroccan
administration and the schools.
The French culture is immanent in all
but certainly the most appreciated is
the Frenchpastry and the "Petit
pains au chocolat"
Today you find the best Petit Pains au chocolat in Azlef (Patisserie Patachou)
Read also about the tragic death of Lieutenant Aviator Cazes, a pioneer French pilot, who died when he crashed on the rocks on the shore of Mogador in 1913. Here
The attack of Mogador
by the French fleet in August 1844, Serkis Diranian. Serkis Diranian (1854-1918) was an Armenian orientalist
Originally from the Ottoman Empire, he was established
for many years in Paris.
The bombing of Mogador was a naval attack launched between 15 and 16 August 1844 by the Kingdom of France against the Moroccan city of Mogador (present-day Essaouira), as part of the Franco-Moroccan war between the two countries following the the support of Sultan Moulay Abderrahmane to Emir Abdelkader.
After first exchanges of artillery fire against the fortifications of the city that turn to the advantage of the French, the French expeditionary force lands on the islet of Mogador and seizes after a fierce Moroccan resistance. The French then seize the port without encountering resistance, while in the meantime, Masmouda tribes in the region took the opportunity to attack the city and loot.
The French fleet commanded by Francois d'Orleans, prince of Joinville, son of King Louis-Philippe, successfully bombed MOGADOR allowing the capture of the city and its port.
Histoire de Mogador (Essaouira) Bombardement de Mogador 15 août 1844 – 17 août 1844
Texte de : Abdelkader Mana Voix off : Yoan Afriat
Auguste Beaumier (1823 -1876)
He is the son of a sea captain from Marseille. After learning Arabic, he became an interpreter in Mogador, Tangier, Tunis and Rabat (1847) then was appointed consul in Mogador in 1865 and officiated there until his death 1876.
Exploring the regions subject to the authority of the sultan, he visited on horseback the Atlantic coast from Tetouan to Mogador and, in 1868, with his wife, Jeanne Pingot, traveled from Mogador to Marrakech with return via Safi. He then draws up reports, itineraries and maps of his travels which he sends to the Geographical Society. See his map of the marche of cholera in 1868 In addition, we owe him numerous translations of Arabic historical and literary works. He was instrumental in spreading the French language and culture in Mogador. Through his action and his many approaches, he contributed decisively to the establishment in Mogador of the school of the Alliance Israélite Universelle (A.I.U.) of Paris despite the opposition of the Jewish oligarchy which had remained very Anglophile. Later, the school of the A.I.U. would take the name of “Ecole Auguste Beaumier”, out of recognition and in homage to this defender, before the hour, of the Francophonie.
ordered 1912 to build the clocktower (Magana) in the new
Sidi Lyautey - an icon
. Resident-General Lyautey
a fervent proponent of indirect colonisation especially in Berber
speaking areas, has kept that role and even enhanced it by given
an important role to local notabilities such as T'hami El
Glaoui, to act as a relay between the population and the
French authorities to govern the country.The Makhzen is
a very ancient notion in Morocco, it roughly coincides with the
notion of the ancien feudalist state predating The French protectorate.
From 1912 to 1956, Essaouira was part of the French protectorate of Morocco. Mogador was used as a base for a military expedition against Dar Anflous, when 8,000 French troops were located outside of the city under the orders of Generals Franchet d'Esperey and Brulard.
The Kasbah of Dar Anflous was taken on 25 January 1913.
France had an important administrative, military and economic presence. Essaouira had a Franco-Moroccan school, still visible in Derb Dharb street. Linguistically, many Moroccans of Essaouira speak French fluently today.
Operations from December 1912 to February 1913 in the Haha-Chiadma circle
- return from Dar-el-Kadi of the Brulard and Massoutier column.
From left to right: the air force of Morocco renders the honours-General Brulard-General Franchet.
The landing companies of the cruisers Du Chayla and Friant. Photo: Georges Guerard (Site: albindenis.free.fr)
General Franchet d'Esperey and the lieutenant Dohu at the gate of Mogador
General Franchet d'Esperey was appointed Major General in 1912, and General Lyautey entrusted him with the command of the troops in Morocco. During the difficult period of the beginnings of the Protectorate, he took an important part in the pacification and organization of the country.
The barracks of of the Zouaves Regiment
Moroccan soldiers fight for France
(Les anciens combattants)
More than 100,000 African soldiers died
in battlefield or by disease (36,000 North Africans and 30,000
black Africans). In July 1916, the terrible "Battle of
the Somme," the summer of 1918 at Chateau-Thierry, in the
woods Courtons (10th Colonial DI), on the Montagne de Reims
(1st Colonial Corps ) and during the offensive Mangin (RICM) http://www.bladi.net/anciens-combattants-marocain.html
Under the protectorate, French civil servants allied themselves with the French settlers (colons) and with their supporters in France to prevent any moves in the direction of Moroccan autonomy. As pacification proceeded, the French government promoted economic development, particularly the exploitation of Morocco's mineral wealth, the creation of a modern transportation system, and the development of a modern agriculture sector geared to the French market. Tens of thousands of colons entered Morocco and bought up large amounts of the rich agricultural land. Interest groups that formed among these elements continually pressured France to increase its control over Morocco.
Avenue du Maréchal Franchet d´Espérey got a new name after the protectorate
which was Avenue de L´Istiqlal but the local name is Haddada. Read more about names of streets
In 1896, Ferdinand SANDILLON
built the first mill in Essaouira.
The mill is now replaced by a
riad in Street Oujda
just on the medina walls by the Bab al Bahr
facing the sea.
Low tide in picture above
Notice in L ánnuaire Marocain Professions de Mogador 1931
The famous tannery Jean Carel,
today abandoned was the first unit created in 1929 in the industrial
area (quartier industriel) of Essaouira. Mogador-Essaouira was one
of the leading suppliers in the kingdom of skins in the mid-twentieth
century. The tannery Carel was the largest in Africa. It was sold
by the family Carel in the early 80 to Moulay Massaoud,
associated with Moulay Abdallah, the brother of King Hassan
II. The tannery survived until 1992, when it closed its doors after
a the workers' struggle and unsuccesful strike.