In the northern part, the major relief is Jebel
el Hadid which has an altitude of about 659 m. It
is composed of Jurassic limestone.
Hanno the Navigator (500 BC)
exploited iron deposit in Jbel Hadid.
The Meskala fields
"The Oxfordian shale was sufficiently
buried in western Essaouira to generate voluminous gas
and condensate liquids, and to expel them into structurally closed
Jurassic reservoirs (Toukimt field)
or offset horst-block Triassic reservoirs (Meskala
field). Geochemical evidence suggests that the Jurassic-age
reservoirs across the eastern Essaouira basin host commingled
gases sourced from Jurassic and Carboniferous
strata. Coal methane, generated from a deeply buried Carboniferous
interval, may have been the main source for the astern Essaouira
basin. Traps developed as structures draping salt domes at junctions
of offset transtensive faults."
Hydrocarbon Generation in the Essaouira Basin of
Western Morocco - Paul Broughton , Andre Trepanier AAPG Bulletin
Sandy soils at the coastal strip of Essaouira
Province and inlands Red soils of the mountain forest, eroded
with limestone surface in assocoation with humus-carbonate
(rendzina) soil and in cracks Paleozoic granite.
Evergreen woods of Thuja
Tetraclinis and Argania Spinosa