Essaouira Mogador is a town at the Atlantic coast of Morocco
Essaouira

 
En langue française
 

 

The Jews

The Jewish population

When the Jews began to disperse throughout the Roman empire after the dissolution of the Jewish state in 70, many settled in Mauretania including part of modern-day Morocco.
In the 7th century the Jewish population of Mauretania received as a further accession from Iberian peninsula those who wished to escape west-Gothic legislation. At the end of the same century, at the time of the great Arab conquests in northwestern Africa, there were in Mauretania, according to the Arab historians, many Jews.

More about the history of the Jews in Morocco is found in External links and The Jews and "Mellah"

The Star of David, a Jewish symbol carved in sandstone on this portal in Jrayfat

Old building with the Jewish star


"The accession to the throne of Yazid, on the death of Mohammed III in 1789, led to a terrible massacre of the Moroccan Jews, having refused him their support in his fight with his brother for the succession".....

......... "In Mogador, strife arose between the Jews and the city judge on the one hand, and the Moorish citizens on the other; the dispute was over the question of Jewish garb. Finally the Jews were ordered to pay 100,000 piasters and three shiploads of gunpowder; and most of them were arrested and beaten daily until the payment was made. Many fled beforehand to Gibraltar or other places; some died as martyrs; and some accepted Islam."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Morocco

"The condition of the Jews has always been better in Mogador than in many other parts of the empire, as the sultans—especially those of the Sherifian dynasty—in many instances favored them. An exception, however, was made in this respect by the sultan Muley Yazid, who in order to convert ten Jews of Mogador tortured them for ten days by repeatedly hanging them head downward in a dry cistern and bastinadoing them. When the news of the death of Muley Yazid came, some of them had expired and one had embraced Islam; the rest were set free."
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?
artid=695&letter=M#ixzz1QHtFFHNb

Rabbis in Mogador

Yahya, from Agadir
Jacob Bibaz, from Rabat;
Abraham Coriat, author of "Sefer Zekut Abot" (went to Leghorn in 1793)
Hayyim Pinto (d. 1845)
David ibn al-Hazzan (d. 1828)
Joseph ben Jacob Almalih, called Joseph al-Kabir
(d. Jerusalem 1837)
Abraham Coriat II., author of "Sefer Berit Abot"
Joseph ben Aaron Almalih
Abraham ibn 'Attar
(d. 1882)
Moses Cohen (emigrated to the city of Morocco)
Abraham Sabah (d. 1903)
Judah ben Maniel, Mas'ud Knafo Joseph ibn 'Attar
(1904)

Read more: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.
jsp?artid=695&letter=M#ixzz1QHu7O62m

 

 

 

At the end of 19th century, the Jewish community in Essaouira amounted to 7700 people in the Mellah and 700 in the two Kasbah.

In the new constitution adopted in 2011 in the context of the Arab spring , his majesty King Mohammed VI established the "Hebrew distinctive charactreristic" of Morocco as " one of the age-old pieces " of "its national identity"" and he called for "the restauration of all the Jewish temples " in the Kingdom. Source: Le Guido - le magazine d' Essaouira. Edition media business Essaouira No. 38 2013

La reine de Mogador 1922

La Reine de Mogador 1922

 

Jewish musicians

Jewish musicians

 

 

"Jews first arrived to the land now known as Morocco over 2000 years ago. Protected under the Islamic Principle of Tolerance since the 7th century, they flourished, holding high positions in trade and government. The Star of David was a symbol shared by all Moroccans, appearing on currency and even the national flag. During the Holocaust, when asked for a list of Jews, King Mohammed V declared, “We have no Jews in Morocco, only Moroccan citizens.” Jews and Muslims were united by culture and kingdom."

http://dafina.net/gazette/article/
exodus-jewish-morocco-par-aaron-vincent-elkaim-photos-magnifiques

 


A famous inhabitant of Essaouira, the adviser of the king to the foreign affairs, André Azoulay who is of Jewish confession, has said that his birthplace Essaouira is, “the single place in the Arab world equipped with a population mainly Jewish until 1930, could be used today as example for the dialogue between the Jews and the Moslems throughout the world

 

Today the State of Israel is home to nearly 1,000,000 Jews of Moroccan descent, around 15% of the nation's total population.

 

During the 19th century the Jewish population in Essaouira grew from 4,000 to 12,000 from 1830 to 1912, and declined to about 6500 in 1936.This is attributed to the decline of commerce and other economic activity during the French Protectorate era in Mogador in favor of Casablanca and Agadir.
The immigration trends of the 1950s and 1960s caused the Mogador Jewish community to dwindle. A new era began for Essaouira.
In the early 1970s most of its Jewish community members resided in USA,Canada, Europe and Israel. By 2005, the community had almost disappeared.

 

"The expenses of the community came from taxes on kosher meat, on imported products, and from various donations from international sources. Many religious schools, a yeshiva, and several English-French Jewish schools were founded in Essaouira in the 1800s. In the early 20th century, the Jewish population in Essaouira was still higher than the Muslim population, and urban life was regulated by the Jewish calendar. While in 1901 the Jewish community counted 19,000 people, the number went down to 5,000 at the beginning of the French Protectorate and continued to decline during the 1950s and 1960s.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/5278591

 

 

 


Rabins of Mogador

Rabins of Mogador

Mogador Jews

Mellah


Liens externes en français

Mogador Judaica, par Lakhdar Omar

LA DÉCOUVERTE DES JUIFS BERBÈRES AU MAROC

(Daniel J. Schroeter . In Relations Judéo-Musulmanes au Maroc : perceptions et réalités,
edited by Michel Abitbol, Paris: Editions Stavit, 1997, pp. 169-187 Dafina.net

Les juifs marocains, plus grande communauté juive du monde arabe
( Dafina.net )

L’exode des Juifs du Maroc
(
Dafina.net)

Le judaïsme marocain est bien vivant ((Dafina.net)

Le calendrier hébraïque (Dafina.net)

La culture en partage (Dafina.net)

Les Juifs du Maroc au cours de l’histoire (Dafina.net)

HISTORIQUE DE LA PRESENCE DES JUIFS AU MAGHREB (Dafina.net)

Hanoucca des Juifs du Maroc : Textes, Recettes, Traditions et Guide Pratique

A propos de l’émigration juive et du patrimoine judéo-marocain Simon Levy :
“Les juifs marocains ont été victimes d’une décision politique”

Hanoucca des Juifs du Maroc : Textes, Recettes, Traditions et Guide Pratique

LE JUDEO-ESPAGNOL
Les Juifs espagnols et l’origine des Juifs du Maroc
Histoire de l’immigration juive au Canada

L’exode des Juifs du Maroc

«2000 ans de vie juive au Maroc» - Azoulay :
«Le judaïsme marocain signe une nouvelle page de son histoire»

.
Plus que 5 000 juifs au Maroc contre 300 000 en 1948

L’histoire enchantée des Juifs du Maroc

Sur les traces des Juifs du Maroc

HISTORIQUE DE LA PRESENCE DES JUIFS AU MAGHREB

Les Juifs du Maroc au cours de l’histoire

L’origine des Juifs d’Afrique du Nord, par le Professeur Yigal Bin-Nun

Il etait une fois le Maroc : LES JUIFS DANS LES REGIONS NON URBAINES,
par David Bensoussan

LES PREMIERS HABITANTS JUIFS DU MAROC AUTREFOIS

Charles de Foucault et les Juifs du Maroc

Histoire des Juifs du Maroc, par Victor Cohen

Les Juifs du Maroc au cours de l’histoire


A Jewish house in Mogador by Darondeau

A Jewish house in Mogador by Darondeau (1807 - 1841)

 

The rabbins of the town Mogador


Source pic: Dafina.net

Old man

Old man

 

 

Culture


The Jews